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Only seven directors have topped the chart in consecutive years: McCarey and , Nichols and , Spielberg and , Jackson and , Verbinski and and the Russo brothers and Because of release schedules—especially in the case of films released towards the end of the year—and different release patterns across the world, many films can do business in two or more calendar years; therefore the grosses documented here are not confined to just the year of release.
Grosses are not limited to original theatrical runs either, with many older films often being re-released periodically so the figures represent all the business a film has done since its original release; a film's first-run gross is included in brackets after the total if known.
Because of incomplete data it cannot be known for sure how much money some films have made and when they made it, but generally the chart chronicles the films from each year that went on to earn the most.
In the cases where estimates conflict both films are recorded, and in cases where a film has moved into first place because of being re-released the previous record-holder is also retained.
Since grosses are not limited to original theatrical runs, a film's first-run gross is included in brackets after the total if known.
If it were the rental gross then that would have made it not only the highest-grossing film of the year, but one of the highest-grossing films of the silent era, and if that is the case it would be unusual for both International Motion Picture Almanac and Variety to omit it from their lists.
ON The figure for It Happened One Night is not truly representative of its success: it was distributed as a package deal along with more than two dozen other Columbia films, and the total earnings were averaged out; the true gross would have been much higher.
GW It is not absolutely clear how much Gone with the Wind earned from its initial release. Trade journals would collate the data by either obtaining it from the distributors themselves, who were keen to promote a successful film, or by surveying theaters and constructing an estimate.
Distributors would often report the worldwide rental since the higher figure made the film appear more successful, while estimates were limited to performance in North America; therefore it was not unusual for worldwide and North American rentals to be mixed up.
Following the outbreak of World War II, many of the foreign markets were unavailable to Hollywood so it became standard practice to just report on North American box-office performance.
MD Mom and Dad does not generally feature in 'high-gross' lists such as those published by Variety due to its independent distribution. Essentially belonging to the exploitation genre , it was marketed as an educational sex hygiene film in an effort to circumvent censorship laws.
Falling foul of the Motion Picture Production Code , Mom and Dad was prevented from obtaining mainstream distribution and restricted to independent and drive-in theaters.
It was the biggest hit of its kind, and remained in continual distribution until the s when hardcore pornography eventually took over.
UN Chopra-Gant stipulates that the figure given for Unconquered is for North American box-office, but as was common at the time, the chart confuses worldwide and North American grosses.
CI The Cinerama figures represent gross amounts. Since Variety at the time ranked films by their U. Variety ' s 'rental' amounts are often repeated, but have no basis in the reality of what the films actually earned—they are hypothetical figures conceived for comparative analysis.
It is likely that Birchard's figure is just the North American gross rental, and includes revenue from the and reissues. SW The "first run" Star Wars grosses do not include revenue from the special-edition releases; however, the figure does include revenue from the re-releases prior to the special editions.
At least eleven films have held the record of 'highest-grossing film' since The Birth of a Nation assumed the top spot in Both The Birth of a Nation and Gone with the Wind spent twenty-five consecutive years apiece as the highest-grosser, with films directed by Steven Spielberg holding the record on three occasions and James Cameron twice.
Spielberg became the first director to break his own record when Jurassic Park overtook E. Another film purported to have been the highest-grosser is the pornographic film Deep Throat.
The main argument against this figure is that it simply did not have a wide enough release to sustain the sort of sums that would be required for it to ultimately gross this amount.
The grosses from their original theatrical runs are included here along with totals from re-releases up to the point that they lost the record; therefore the total for The Birth of a Nation includes income from its reissues up to ; the total for Star Wars includes revenue from the late s and early s reissues but not from the Special Edition; the total for E.
The Godfather was re-released in after its success at the 45th Academy Awards , and Jaws was released again in , and their grosses here most likely include earnings from those releases.
The Sound of Music , The Godfather , Jaws , Jurassic Park and Titanic increased their earnings with further releases in , , , and respectively, but they are not included in the totals here because they had already conceded the record prior to being re-released.
Includes revenue from re-releases. If a film increased its gross through re-releases while holding the record, the year in which it recorded its highest gross is also noted in italics.
The methodology is based on the concept that films associated with things audiences are already familiar with can be more effectively marketed to them, and as such are known as "pre-sold" films within the industry.
A franchise is typically defined to be at least two works derived from a common intellectual property. Traditionally, the work has a tautological relationship with the property, but this is not a prerequisite.
An enduring staple of the franchise model is the concept of the crossover , which can be defined as "a story in which characters or concepts from two or more discrete texts or series of texts meet".
A shared universe is a particular type of crossover where a number of characters from a wide range of fictional works wind up sharing a fictional world.
List of highest-grossing films. Background shading indicates films playing in the week commencing 4 December in theaters around the world. See also: List of films by box office admissions.
Glossary: Distributor rentals. Box-office figures are reported in the form of gross or distributor rentals , the latter being especially true of older films.
Commonly mistaken for home video revenue, the rentals are the distributor's share of the film's theatrical revenue i.
R Distributor rental. TBA To be ascertained. See also: List of highest-grossing media franchises. Background shading indicates that at least one film in the series is playing in the week commencing 4 December in theaters around the world.
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International Monetary Fund. Retrieved April 28, Translated by Andrianov, P. Moscow: Astrel. Retrieved November 25, Retrieved July 1, The feature film distribution deal: a critical analysis of the single most important film industry agreement.
Southern Illinois University Press. Distributor rentals: It is also important to know and recognize the difference between the distributor's gross receipts and the gross rentals.
The term "rentals" refers to the aggregate amount of the film distributor's share of monies paid at theatre box offices computed on the basis of negotiated agreements between the distributor and the exhibitor.
Note that gross receipts refers to amounts actually received and from all markets and media, whereas gross rentals refers to amounts earned from theatrical exhibition only, regardless of whether received by the distributor.
Thus, gross receipts is the much broader term and includes distributor rentals. The issue of film rentals i. Again, however, such an average is based on widely divergent distributor rental ratios on individual films.
Focal Press ]. Marketing to moviegoers: a handbook of strategies used by major studios and independents 2 ed. Rentals are the distributors' share of the box office gross and typically set by a complex, two-part contract.
The American film industry. University of Wisconsin Press. Film Rentals as Percent of Volume of Business : To rekindle interest in the movies, Hollywood not only had to compete with television but also with other leisure-time activities Movies made a comeback by , but audiences had changed.
Moviegoing became a special event for most people, creating the phenomenon of the big picture. The Bible—in the Beginning It was the last biblical epic to be released by any major Hollywood studio for nearly twenty years.
Retrieved May 12, Retrieved January 6, Nash Information Services. American Movie Classics. Retrieved January 5, The Rough Guide to Film Musicals.
Dorling Kindersley. This became its standard policy in , when the advent of war in Europe persuaded the American film industry temporarily, as it turned out that it should be wholly reliant on the home market for profitability.
Where specific rentals data are reported in Variety before this which tended to be only sporadically they were often for worldwide rather domestic performance.
This was also the case with other trade sources, such as Quigley ' s annual Motion Picture Almanac , which published its own all-time hits lists from the early s onward.
The subsequent confusion of domestic and worldwide figures, and of rental and box-office figures, has plagued many published accounts of Hollywood history sometimes including those in Variety itself , and we have attempted to be diligant in clarifying the differences between them.
Retrieved July 14, February 2, Retrieved September 15, Gone with the Wind includes initial release plus four rereleases ,, and since foreign rental revenues were available only cumulative through September 23, The Register-Guard.
Eugene, Oregon. Retrieved August 11, Griffiths and the banks: a case study in film financing". In Kerr, Paul ed. This reflects the total amount paid to the distributor, not box-office gross.
June 21, Cited in "Biggest Money Pictures". Archived from the original on November 5, Retrieved June 25, Daily Record. Ellensburg, Washington.
United Press International. July 21, It became the biggest hit of the sound era and the largest-grossing movie since The Birth of a Nation — until the release of independent producer David O.
Selznick's Gone with the Wind just two years later. Oxford University Press. Since it's rarely seen today, The Singing Fool is frequently confused with The Jazz Singer ; although besides Jolson and a pervasively maudlin air the two have little in common.
In the earlier film Jolson was inordinately attached to his mother and sang "Mammy"; here the fixation was on his young son, and "Sonny Boy" became an enormous hit.
Some sources give it as the highest gross of any film in its initial release prior to Gone with the Wind. Still, by the standards of the time it's an amazing amount.
American silent film. Da Capo Press. Putting The Birth of a Nation in fifth place is open to question, since it is generally conceded to be the top-grossing film of all time.
However, it has always been difficult to obtain reliable box-office figures for this film, and it may have been even more difficult in the mids.
After listing it until the mids as the top-grosser, though finding it impossible to quote exact figures, Variety , the trade journal, suddenly repudiated the claim but without giving specific details or reasons.
On the basis of the number of paid admissions, and continuous exhibition, its number one position seems justified. The Columbus Dispatch.
Retrieved January 31, Reading Eagle. Associated Press. GWTW had hitherto maintained its lead through several reissues and was soon to regain it through another in Toledo Blade.
Retrieved November 17, The Robesonian. The Free Lance—Star. The Palm Beach Post. Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on June 6, Taylor Trade Publishing.
The prints were battered, but the studio believed one final fling for GWTW was possible. The film returned to movie theaters for the third time in the spring of and stayed in release until late When MGM finally pulled the film from exhibition, all worn-out prints were destroyed, and GWTW was at last declared out of circulation.
University Press of Kentucky. The Victoria Advocate. The StarPhoenix. January 16, Evening Independent. University of California Press.
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Warner Bros. January 8, Retrieved June 7, Archived from the original on February 28, Retrieved February 24, The actual figure is hard to calculate because the film was distributed on a "states' rights" basis in which licenses to show the film were sold outright.
The Birth of a nation: D. Griffith, director. The Daytona Beach News-Journal. The great movie stars: the golden years. Crown Publishing Group.
Archived from the original on July 8, Way Down East : p. This figure was based on the amounts earned from its roadshow run, coupled with its playoff in the rest of the country's theaters.
In fact, if its foreign grosses followed the usual 40 percent of domestic returns, the film would have lost money. The parade's gone by.
Douglas Fairbanks. July 6, Retrieved July 12, DeMille's Hollywood. The Ten Commandments The Sign of the Cross.
Samson and Delilah. The Greatest Show on Earth. Guinness Book of Movie Facts and Feats 4 ed. Abbeville Publishing Group. Retrieved December 19, Retrieved January 15, Jolson's follow-up Warner Bros.
The Singing Fool : p. Twentieth Century-Fox: a corporate and financial history. Filmmakers series. Sunny Side Up : p. Ideology and Cinematography in Hollywood, — Palgrave Macmillan.
Volume 5 of History of the American Cinema. Cavalcade : p. A personality-centered musical, Whoopee! Hughes did not have the "Midas touch" the trade press so often attributed to him.
The production cost estimate is probably correct. Hughes worked on the picture for over two years, shooting it first as a silent and then as a talkie.
Lewis Milestone said that in between Hughes experimented with shooting it in color as well. But Variety' s earnings report must be the fabrication of a delirious publicity agent, and Keats' the working of a myth maker.
Whatever the foreign gross was, it seems unlikely that it was great enough to earn a profit for the picture. Retrieved July 4, Chaplin: genius of the cinema.
Abrams Books. International Motion Picture Almanac —38 : — University of Exeter Press. Historical Journal of Film Radio and Television.
The reaction to West's first major film, however, was not exclusively negative. The Merry Widow : p. San Francisco : p. Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success.
University Press of Mississippi. Claudette Colbert: She Walked in Beauty. Scarecrow Press. Wilhelm, Henry Gilmer; Brower, Carol Preservation Pub.
Disney had bet more than his company on the success of Snow White. Focus Features. Archived from the original on September 13, Mark Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television.
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Volume 6 of History of the American Cinema. Boom Town was the biggest moneymaker of and one of the top films of the decade. Manchester University Press.
Mrs Miniver was a phenomenon. It was the most popular film of the year from any studio in both North America and Britain, and its foreign earnings were three times higher than those of any other MGM film released in the —42 season.
Random Harvest was also the most popular film of the year in Britain, where it proved to be even more popular than Britain's most acclaimed war film, In Which We Serve.
Miniver : Burns, Douglas , Mrs. Miniver , p. Yankee Doodle Dandy : p. Retrieved June 24, Retrieved August 29, Part 3. Retrieved July 9, Duke University Press.
Leading the pack of postwar sex hygiene films was Mom and Dad , which would become not only the most successful sex hygiene film in history but the biggest pre exploitation film of any kind.
Mary's , p. Retrieved July 10, Walt Disney: the biography. Aurum Press. Retrieved July 25, Continuum International Publishing Group. Retrieved November 18, Archived from the original on December 28, January 19, Work in Progress.
Pennsylvania State University. Cinderella revived its fortunes. Mannix ledger. Transforming the Screen, — Volume 7 of History of the American Cinema.
Quo Vadis : p. It was obvious to Hollywood that the public was ready for a new form of motion picture entertainment. January 13, Retrieved September 12, Retrieved January 9, This movie helps economists understand how competing companies set their prices, how governments should design auctions to squeeze the most from bidders and how to explain the sometimes self-defeating decisions that groups make.
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